India’s National Education Policy has changed after 34 years. The vision is to provide quality education and transform India into a global knowledge superpower. The Union Cabinet approved the draft of National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 on 29 July 2020. MHRD has also been renamed to Education Ministry.
School Education Reforms
- Board exams will test the actual knowledge of a student instead of rote learning. The syllabus will also get reduced to core concepts.
- The 10+2 system will pedagogically get transformed into a 5+3+3+4 system. The first five years will be focussed on building a strong foundation and the next three on exploring various subjects.
- There will be no rigid separation between Arts, Sciences, and Commerce. Students will be allowed to choose the subjects of their interest.
- Vocational skills like coding would now be imparted from class 6 onwards.
- Mother tongue/ regional language/ home language will be used as the medium of instruction at least till 5th grade.
- There will be a new national curriculum framework for ECE, School, teachers and Adult Education.
- Co-curricular will be given equal importance as academics.
- Student’s progress report will access 360 holistic development of a child and not just the marks scored.
- The national mission is to focus on basic literacy and basic numeracy.
- Curriculum to integrate 21st-century skills, mathematical thinking and scientific temper.
- Book promotion and digital libraries will be promoted.
- National Testing Agency (NTA) will offer a Common Entrance Exam for admission to higher education institutions.
- There will be National Profession Standards for Teachers (NPST) and National Assessment Center – PARKH for student assessment.
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Higher Education Reforms
- The education system will be holistic and multidisciplinary. The flexibility of subjects will be allowed.
- There will be 50% Gross Enrolment Ration by 2035.
- UG Programme and PG Programme will be for 3-4 years and 1-2 years respectively. An integrated 5-year Bachelor’s/ Master’s will also be there.
- HEIs: Research intensive/ teaching Intensive Universities and Autonomous Degree-Granting College will be there.
- Multidisciplinary Education and Research University (MERU) model will get followed.
- There will be one single higher education regulator called the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) for the entire higher education studies, except medical and legal.
- National Research Foundation will be created as an apex body for facilitating a strong research culture across higher education.
- There will be flexible entry and exit into higher education institutions. Students will be awarded a certificate after completion of one year, a diploma after two years and a degree after the successful completion of the three- year or four-year curriculum.
- Academic Bank of Credits will be set up in colleges. The total credits earned will be counted at the time of receiving degrees.
- M.Phill programme will be discontinued. Students will be allowed to do a four-year degree programme, one-year Masters and then directly go to the doctoral programme.
- Top 100 foreign universities will be allowed to set up their campuses in India through a new law.
- National Scholarship Portal will be expanded to support, foster and track the progress of students receiving scholarships.
Use of Digital
- There will be increasing access for the disadvantaged groups.
- E-content will be available in regional language.
- Schools, students and teachers will be digitally equipped.
- Virtual Labs will be set up.
- National Education Technology Forum (NETF) will be there.
- There will be Graded Autonomy in Academics, Administrative and Financial sector.